In contrast to my last post on reported speech, Cleft Sentences are one of my favourites! It’s beautiful language that serves to emphasize and give particular attention to something important or something out of the ordinary.
There are three ways to form a cleft sentences.
- A clause beginning with ‘what’ linked to the rest of the sentence by the verb ‘to be’. The verb in the ‘what’ clause is usually ‘do’. If this is the case, the verb ‘to be’ is followed by the infinitive, the ‘to’ is optional. Shown here in example 2.
- “I really like ice cream” – “What I really like is ice cream”
- .”He complained to the board of directors” – “What he did was complain to the board of directors”
- A clause beginning with ‘All’
“You’re the only thing I want for Christmas” – “All I want for Christmas is you”
- A clause beginning with It is / Was linked by ‘that’ / ‘who’
“Mike left the cake on the table” – “It was Mike who left the cake on the table”
These details are a more in depth look at Cleft Sentences that are only really necessary for levels C1 and higher. Any lower and the students might get confused, I do too sometimes! All of the basic grammar shown above remains the same, there are a couple of additions noted here only.
What Clause + To Be + Emphasized Part
These can be a noun phrase;
“What I really want is ice cream”
“What she likes is eating ice cream”
Or a Noun Clause;
“What I want to know is where to get ice cream”
Usually, we use ‘what’ as the object of the clause, but sometimes it’s used as the subject;
“What she is doing really upsets me”
We can use ‘what’ clefts to focus attention on verb phrases. To do this we use a form of the verb ‘do’ in the ‘what’ clause and the basic verb in the emphasized verb phrase.
“What she does is eat ice cream all day” – Eating ice cream all day is what she does”
Sometimes an infinitive is the emphasized verb phrase after ‘to do’. Although the ‘to’ can be omitted.
“Now what she is planning to do is to eat ice cream for a living”
These clefts are usually for a noun or a pronoun;
“It was me that ate all the ice cream”
But also for prepositional phrases;
“It was the car for which I was looking”
And for Adverbial Clauses;
“It was today that I found the car”
So yes, Cleft Sentences can be a real humdinger to teach, lots of students asking lots of questions. But with reference to exams, this structure is particularly useful when writing essays and reports, and also for their speaking. Get them to play around with them a little and it will be well worth their time!
Any more doubts about Cleft Sentences? No worries! Let me know in the comment section and I’ll get back to you!